ALAMEDA — With the Raiders having an agreement in place to acquire wide receiver Antonio Brown from the Pittsburgh Steelers, a look at five deals made by late owner Al Davis to bring aboard talents destined for the Pro Football Hall of Fame:1) Cornerback Willie Brown (and quarterback Mickey Slaughter) from Denver in exchange for defensive tackle Rex Mirich and a third-round draft pick in 1967Brown was coming off a breakout season with nine interceptions with 133 yards in returns and was …
US authorities have been warned by Asia-Pacific airlines against taking “ill-judged reactionary measures’’ that could threaten the global economy by imposing costs for no tangible security benefit.A strongly-worded statement from the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines warns that any move by the US to expand the ban on laptops and large electronic items in the cabins of aircraft operating US-bound flights could also undermine public confidence in aviation security.AAPA joins the International Air Transport Association, the European Union and travel bodies in urging the US to look again at proposals to expand the ban to European destinations and possibly wider.AAPA director general Andrew Herdman said the association understood the need to maintain the highest level of security in air transport and were committed to working with government security agencies and others.“Despite recent events, public confidence in the safety and security of air travel remains high,’’ Herdman said. “It would be a tragedy if that confidence were to be undermined by ill-judged reactionary measures being misguidedly imposed by those entrusted with maintaining public safety.“The ripple effects of such measures, and their proposed wider expansion, threaten to disrupt the global economy and impose far greater costs on society with no tangible public security benefits.“This would only serve to further the aims of the terrorists, who measure their success by how much society over-reacts to their provocations.’’Herman said past experience with terrorist threats repeatedly highlighted the critical importance of effective intelligence gathering and analysis rather than a focus on generalised screening.He urged governments to work more closely with the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the industry.“Good security is all about comprehensive threat assessment and balanced risk management, not the elimination of every conceivable risk,’’ he said. “Aviation security is a collective global responsibility and requires effective consultation to ensure that security measures are practical, cost effective and sustainable whilst minimising the impact on the wider travelling public.’’AAPA also noted airlines had invested heavily in technology to allow passengers to use their personal electronic devices on aircraft and passengers were already subject to “onerous and inconsistent” screening measures prior to boarding a flight.It said safety issues relating to big numbers of lithium battery-powered devices stowed in an aircraft cargo bay, contrary to recognized best safety practices, also remain unresolved.While the US Department of Homeland Security has yet to make a decision on expanding the ban imposed in March on North African and Middle Eastern airports, it has confirmed it is considering the option.However, it has labelled as incorrect conflicting reports it is looking at extending the ban to all flights to the US and that it has shelved the expansion proposal.Representatives from the EU and the US are due to meet for further discussions on the issue.
The SASSI programme’s prominent online presence has also made it easy for consumers to participate. Consumers can obtain the most up-to-date information at any time on the SASSI website, FishMS and mobi site. The FishMS service allows consumers to access the SASSI seafood database from any mobile phone. Consumers can send a text message to the number 079 499 8795 to find out whether a particular species is on the red, orange or green list. According to Petersen, the response from wholesalers and retailers to consumer pressure has also been encouraging. A growing number of participants at this end of the value chain are actively involved with the SFP. Quarterly assessments are carried out with each partner to evaluate their seafood procurement process and raise awareness amongst staff. The programme is working with 11 of the biggest seafood suppliers in South Africa (such as Aquatic Foods and Fish On Line), the large retailers (Pick n Pay, Woolworths, Spar) and popular restaurant chains such as John Dory’s and Ocean Basket. Offshore and inshore commercial industry players, such as I&J and Sea Harvest, are also involved.Fish stocks recovering Petersen said in a statement that kingklip stocks almost collapsed a few years ago. However, because of consumer pressure many restaurants stopped offering it on the menu and retailers no longer kept it in stock. Catch limits were also introduced and the kingklip spawning site near Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape was placed under protection. “I really hope to see kingklip on the green list one day soon.” Basson says that some of South Africa’s linefish species are also showing signs of recovery. For example, red roman, a member of the seabream family, is a popular linefish species that is endemic to Southern Africa. It is a reef-associated species with a relatively narrow distribution from Namibia to the Eastern Cape. She says it is a slow growth species – a 40cm fish could be as old as 40 years. They achieve late sexual maturity and change sex from female to male as they mature. These factors make them highly vulnerable to overfishing. Red roman stocks are in urgent need of rebuilding as they have almost disappeared in some areas such as False Bay on the southern Cape coast. However, she says that there is evidence of recovery within Marine Protected Areas (MPA) along the coast. Research has shown a 90% increase in catches of red roman within the Goukamma MPA. Goukamma is situated on the Garden Route on the Cape South Coast. The exclusion of fishing boats from Goukamma has also been beneficial. “Although much remains to be done to get the red roman stock back to its former glory, this still indicates the tremendous value of MPAs in rebuilding the breeding stock of important over-exploited linefish species,” says Basson.SA consumers more environmentally aware Consumers are becoming more aware of issues affecting the environment. “South African consumers are one of the main reasons why SASSI has been so successful and why we have seen some of our fish species recover,” Basson says. Another success story is that of the South African hake trawl fishery. Significant progress has been made in the management of the hake resource, as a result of both Marine Stewardship Council certification and consumer pressure. If consumers continue to ask questions, it will have major positive impacts for the entire seafood industry. First published by MediaClubSouthAfrica.com – get free high-resolution photos and professional feature articles from Brand South Africa’s media service. 1 October 2010 Thanks to South African consumers, the demand for over-exploited fish stocks is declining. Increasing consumer pressure on seafood retailers to stock sustainably harvested fish and support eco-friendly fishing methods have caused stocks of species such as kingklip to show signs of recovery. The Southern African Sustainable Seafood Initiative (SASSI) was launched six years ago to involve the entire seafood supply chain, including consumers, in creating a sustainable seafood industry. Today this initiative has proven to be a highly successful South African consumer campaign. The ocean has often been viewed as an “infinite resource”, but buy-in from the public is helping to correct this perception. Janine Basson from the Sustainable Fisheries Programme (SFP): Fisher and Consumer Outreach, says the SASSI programme has been so successful to date because consumers feel empowered. Their choices can drive positive change towards the recovery of fish stocks. “Consumers are given the opportunity to make informed choices when choosing which seafood to buy and eat. People want to be part of the solution to overfishing, and SASSI is a tool that allows them to do that,” Basson says. There are other seafood campaigns globally that are doing similar work. However, Basson says the major difference is that other international programmes do not partner with seafood industry players, whereas the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) South Africa is partnering with industry. This is a key strength of the programme.Finding solutions together A number of programmes are jointly finding solutions to the problem of overfishing and declining fish stocks. The SFP forms part of the WWF Sanlam Living Waters partnership, an initiative to promote marine conservation in South Africa. The SFP works across the seafood supply chain to address ecosystem overexploitation. It contributes to two of the partnership’s targets for the marine sector – firstly, to apply an ecosystem approach to fisheries in South Africa and reduce the impacts of destructive fishing practices to acceptable levels. Its other goal is to restore at least half of over-exploited fish stocks to sustainably managed levels, while still maintaining or improving the state of other stocks. The SFP aims to meet these targets through activities that focus on how fish are caught and traded. The Responsible Fisheries Programme works directly with the fishing industry and resource management and addresses how fish are caught. SASSI focuses on the trading aspect, which involves retailers, restaurants, chefs and consumers.Consumers asking the right questions Dr Samantha Petersen, project manager of the SFP, said in a statement that consumers must continue asking restaurants and retailers if they serve or sell sustainably harvested fish and seafood. Some fishing and seafood farming methods pose more harm to the environment than others. For instance, Basson says, line- or pole-caught methods are relatively selective and don’t kill unintended species such as seabirds and sharks. Although some forms of seafood farming can reduce pressure on overexploited wild stocks, this is only the case if wild fish don’t have to be fed to farmed fish, or if the production method doesn’t further degrade the environment. Consumers must not hesitate to ask in-depth questions about seafood and find out what they are buying or eating, where it comes from and how it was caught. Research indicates that positive changes at sea have predominantly resulted from consumer queries. “One consumer who asks questions about the sustainability of their seafood is likely to have a bigger influence than 100 who simply make a green choice without telling the restaurant or retailer why,” Basson says. Major success has also been achieved with SASSI’s progressive consumer tools. The SASSI Consumer Pocket Guide, originally drafted in 2005, uses a three-level colour classification to rate fish. Green indicates best choice while orange suggests caution and red means the species is illegal or classified as a “no sale species”. Certain species such as tuna were categorised in the green group, but this did not take the fishing method into account. The original red group only included the species that are prohibited from being sold by law.Get the SASSI list The new and updated SASSI list includes a revision of a number of species included on the original list. The new red group lists unsustainable species along with those that are illegal to sell in South Africa. Basson says the original list excluded important imported and aquaculture species, but the updated version includes a selection of these species. “This was becoming an increasingly pressing need due to the growing South African aquaculture industry,” she says. Download the pocket-sized version of the SASSI list (PDF, 1.25MB)
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest It has been pretty dry here. We are hoping to finish up soybeans today. We haven’t touched any corn yet. We just keep hammering on these beans. We have 130 acres of beans to go and we’ll switch to corn.Yields have been pretty steady with a range of 45 to about 70 bushels depending on the field and the water damage. We are seeing a lot of the water damage on some of our better fields but the yields are still hanging out around 60 or better. We are pretty satisfied with that.I hand shelled some corn last week. It was 109-day maturity and it was around 19% moisture. At the elevator they are saying everything is from 17% to 25% moisture in the last week. Corn yields in the area have been 100 bushels an acre on up to 230 and 240. Corn will have a lot of variation across the field.We have been doing fall herbicide applications the last couple of years and that really helps with the marestail. This year, though, we are more concerned with compaction than weed pressure. We did some deep chiseling and we ran our vertical-till disk on some acres. We have a good start on that and we are going to try to get more tillage done this fall than we normally would. We are definitely ahead of schedule.There have been a lot of combine fires in this area because everything has been so dry and dusty. Everybody needs to stay safe and make sure their fire extinguishers are working. You never know when something like that is going to happen. There have been more fires this year then there have been in the past.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Danielle Burch of Salem, president of the Columbiana County Farm Bureau, is one of 15 national farm and ranch leaders honored as graduates of the American Farm Bureau Federation’s 11th annual Women’s Communications Boot Camp. The group was recognized after completing an intensive three-day course featuring sessions on working with the media, public speaking, testifying and messaging.“Women’s Communication Boot Camp is the experience of a lifetime,” said Sherry Saylor, an Arizona row crop farmer and chair of the AFB Women’s Leadership Committee. “Graduates of this program are persuasive and effective advocates for agriculture, with a passion for connecting with influencers at the local, state and national levels.”Burch, who won Ohio Farm Bureau’s 2017 Discussion Meet competition, is also a county action team leader and served on the OFBF Young Ag Professionals State Committee from 2013-2016. She received her bachelor’s degree in political science and history at the University of Mount Union and master’s degree in education at St. Joseph’s University. She teaches at United Local High School in Hanoverton. Burch and her husband, Andrew, have two children and operate a 250-acre dairy farm in Salem, where she is a member of the Winona Fire Department Auxiliary and Hanoverton Church of Christ.The American Farm Bureau Women’s Leadership Committee, in partnership with AFBF staff, hosts and provides training for Women’s Communications Boot Camp. The program has more than 165 graduates and is open to all women involved in Farm Bureau. An application process is used to select the participants.
Geocache Name:RUDNIK MANGANA / MANGANESE MINE (GC4RCD7) — by marko0037Location:Jesenice, SloveniaN 46° 27.000 E 014° 06.000Difficulty/Terrain Rating:D3.5/T3.5Why this is Geocache of the Week:This geocache is the kind that brings you to a place you would probably never have otherwise heard of or visited. Set deep into a forest on Slovenia’s northern border, this multi-cache will take you on a hike in the woods past old mining artifacts, culminating in an old manganese mine dating back to the 19th century.The mine itself is still accessible via two entrances — but use caution. And if you’re not comfortable going inside the tunnel, there’s plenty of lovely nature to explore nearby. Plus, if you find this cache, or any cache in Slovenia, you’ll earn a shiny new Slovenia country souvenir.This cache was the first to be awarded the Geocache of the Month award by the Slovenian Geocaching Club.What the cache owner has to say:What sorts of things will a geocacher find while on this multi-cache tour?On the beginning of the path, you can see water slide between the two dams and an interesting springs of the stream Javornik. At the upper dam on the information board find the coordinates of the manganese mine. Do not forget to look the ore below an information board on the entry of the 200 year old manganese ore mine.Why did you want to bring people to this location?Beautiful nature, walking in silence, without other visitors. Historic mine in which it is still possible to enter, but only a few – 10m.What can you tell us about the history of the manganese mine?This mine was just one of many manganese mines in Slovenia. Manganese ores were processed in Jesenice ironworks. From this ore it was in Jesenice ironworks under the leadership of ing. Lambert PANTZ in 1872 that, for the first time (in the world), that blast furnace was used to produce manganese iron. The Industrial Company Kranj was awarded with the gold medal for extraordinary innovation at a global industry exhibition in Pennsylvania on the hundredth anniversary of the United States.Photos: SharePrint RelatedWalensee 8° — Geocache of the WeekAugust 7, 2019In “Community”I FEEL sLOVEnia: Brand New Geocaching Country Souvenir for SloveniaNovember 16, 2015In “Community”This is Mine 2 GC14EEQ GEOCACHE OF THE WEEK – October 17, 2011October 17, 2011In “Community” Continue to explore some of the most amazing geocaches around the world. Check out all of the Geocaches of the Week on the Geocaching blog. If you would like to nominate a Geocache of the Week, fill out this form. Share with your Friends:More
Dedicated e-readers like Amazon’s Kindle and Barnes & Noble’s Nook are coming under increasing pressure from mobile phones and tablet devices like the iPad. According to the latest research from Informa Telecoms & Media, sales of e-readers with broadband connections will peak in 2014, as users decide to opt for multi-purpose devices like the iPad. According to Informa, the best way for e-reader manufacturers to survive is to focus on cheap devices that don’t feature built-in wireless connectivity.The Real Question: E-Paper or LCD Displays?Many readers swear by e-paper displays that look and “feel” more like regular paper than traditional computer displays. These e-paper displays don’t need backlighting and consume far less power than tablets that use back-lighted displays. A number of e-paper manufacturers are working hard on developing color displays with faster refresh rates that will allow Kindle-like devices to compete with the feature set of tablets. The question, of course, is if users will really flock to low-end e-readers or if they will opt for more expensive multi-purpose devices like the iPad instead. In the near future, some of these tablets will likely feature more advanced e-paper displays that will combine the best of both worlds, though they will probably cost about the same as an iPad. The Disadvantages of Dedicated E-ReadersFor now, however, these advanced displays aren’t ready for the consumer market, while tablets are getting more market share and iPad apps like Wired’s new magazine app get a chance to show the advantages of tablet computers. A number of universities have experimented with the Kindle as a textbook reader, and it’s quickly becoming clear that today’s e-readers aren’t ready for this market, as students ask for a more flexible devices that are more akin to tablet computers than a dedicated e-readers.Sony ExpandsThis study comes on the same day that Sony announced its plans to expand the availability of its e-reader to Japan, China, Australia and a number of European countries. Asia is one of the fastest growing markets for e-readers, so this move definitely makes sense. With its low-end e-readers, Sony will be in a good position if Informa’s predictions turn out to be true. Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Related Posts A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Tags:#E-Books#NYT#web Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting frederic lardinois 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market
Use experimental ambient royalty-free tracks to put your project in the same category as today’s most talked-about films in 2019.Superheroes will always rise and fall to the sounds of bombastic brass sections, and we will always cheer. The historical figures of high-brow Oscar-bait will always live and die to the sounds of sweeping strings, and we will always weep accordingly.While there’s obviously nothing wrong with using a traditional score to support your footage, today’s most groundbreaking productions are approaching movie music from a more experimental place. Content creators looking to stand out and push the boundaries of storytelling should take note — and then explore the curated playlist of mood-altering ambient royalty-free tracks at the end of this post.Image via s_maria.Experimental Film Scores: A Brief HistoryUsing music in a way that makes it almost more of a character than a complement is certainly trending, and it’s an approach that’s been building steam for a while. Lalo Schifren’s soundtrack to THX 1138 features long, droning passages that mirror the drug-induced emotional flatness experienced by the citizens of George Lucas’s stark dystopian future. 1978’s Jubilee (in which a time-hopping Queen Elizabeth I visits punk-rock London) boasts a score by avant-garde legend Brian Eno.2007’s There Will Be Blood saw Radiohead’s Jonny Greenwood use screeching, dissonant violins to express the unnerving desperation that defined Paul Thomas Anderson’s brutal West. Soon after, David Fincher forged a creative partnership with Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross that stretched across The Social Network (2010), The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo (2011), and Gone Girl (2014). The results were soundtracks that felt more like moods than music.In recent years, experimental ambient scores have become de rigueur for smart genre filmmakers. Mica Levi’s score to 2014’s Under the Skin is as atonal as Scarlett Johansson’s character is alien, while Ben Salisbury and Geoff Barrow’s music for 2015’s Ex Machina and 2018’s Annihilation translates Alex Garland’s visions of isolation and body horror into sound.Image via best_vector.Before his untimely death in 2018, Jóhann Jóhannsson’s compositions for films like Prisoners, Sicario, and Arrival earned him a reputation as an innovative new force in film scores. Regarding Jóhannsson’s work on 2018’s Mandy, Andy Beta of Pitchfork said, “the late composer and experimental musician revels in extreme sounds, delving into black metal, menacing ambient, doom drone, and piercing orchestrations.”There’s a good chance that the next milestone in this tinnitus-inducing timeline will be July 2019’s Midsommar from director Ari Aster. After tasking Colin Stetson to compose the abrasive white-knuckle soundtrack to 2018’s Hereditary, Aster tapped Bobby Krlic — aka The Haxan Cloak — to score his sophomore effort. The Midsommar press release promises “wordless, atonal, ritualistic songs” and reveals that Aster wrote his script to Krlic’s music. Pretty neat.If you’re ready to join today’s top film talent in getting experimental, dive into the playlist of experimental ambient tracks below. We’ve selected music to represent a lot of the vibes we mentioned above. Some are chill and melodic. Some are distinctly the opposite. Regardless, each of these royalty-free songs can be yours forever with a simple Standard License, and all of them present an opportunity to do something unexpected with your next project. Cover image via Stock_Good.Header image via GrooveZ.Playlist header image via best_vector.Looking for more royalty-free music playlists? Check these out.Creative Zeitgeist: 2019 Royalty Free Music Trends PlaylistMake Your Cuts Shine with Royalty-Free Transition MusicCreative Royalty-free Intro Music for Better Viewer EngagementFresh Tracks: Hear June’s Best New Royalty Free MusicRococo Romance: Give Your Video a Classical Cinematic Sound
There are several stylistic and technological approaches to communicate information at a distance. We look at two: the zoom and the punch In.The ZoomThe zoom, of course, requires a telescopic lens to magnify the image. The camera is static so there won’t be any perspective changes. You can move the camera while zooming, a notable effect being the Hitchcock shot (a.k.a. the dolly zoom), but let’s focus on a static camera for this article.At its most basic, a zoom allows us to redirect and focus our audience’s attention within a single shot. A great example is the crash-zoom, often used in Hong Kong action cinema, and films harkening back to it. It emphasizes an action, introduces an imposing character, or adds weight to a character’s mood or emotion. Note its use in introducing Calvin Candy in Django Unchained.Here, we finally meet the man of much discussion — the slave master of Django’s wife. Once we see his face, it’s like nothing else in the world matters — all our attention is focused on him.In Clinton Jones’s short action film “Sleeping Dogs,” we see an excellent use of a crash-zoom-out. After our main character rolls back over the table, he steps up onto the counter, then turns and kicks an attacker in the face. The camera crash zooms out, whipping our view back to a wide angle, to see the kick to the face and the thwarted attacker’s painful reaction.Here, the crash-zoom whiplashes the audience, just as our hero’s kick whiplashes his foe. But the crash-zoom is a fairly unique type of zoom. What happens when we take our time and zoom in slowly?Now, zooming in and out can create very different emotions. Let’s zoom in first. As I said earlier, this redirects and focuses our audience’s attention, but when the focus of the zoom is a character, we create a new feeling — that our character’s point of view is becoming hyper-focused. Maybe the character is putting two and two together and their mind is coming closer to a solution or revelation. Or perhaps they’ve become focused on a goal, like Jack Torrance losing his mind and thinking he needs to kill his family to “correct them.”Zooming out creates isolation. The slower we zoom, the more we become aware just how far we are away from our target — both physically and situationally. It emphasizes the distance between us and them — between them and the world. If our character is in a crowd, we convey several things, either that they’re not unique, they’re one of many, or that no amount of people in the world can rid them of their isolation.The Punch InThe punch in is one of those frustrating “same but different” techniques, in relation to the zoom. Yes, they both accomplish the same objective of moving our audience closer to, or further from, a new focus. But the method is different and the resulting emotion can be, as well. The punch in is more direct. It literally cuts straight to the chase.Whereas the zoom accomplishes its goal in a single shot, the punch in requires (at minimum) two shots edited together. Check out this scene in Casino Royale where James Bond realizes that the fuel tanker is where his objective is.You could use a crash-zoom, but it might whiplash the audience, creating a more shocking feeling. A slow zoom would help convey that he has discovered the truth of the situation. But, we need something fast to keep the pace of the chase scene going — we need something punchier. We just need to quickly convey what James Bond has discovered and that it’s of critical importance. We don’t need to whiplash our audience, but we do want to surprise them, thus heightening the intensity of the scene.The punch in can also frighten us. With each cut, we draw closer and closer toward doom. A slow zoom can create dread, but a punch in can shock us, causing us to get closer to a state of panic.As we cut closer to the paranormal twins, we feel Danny’s impending doom.ExperimentationThe zoom and punch in have similar qualities. Like most things in art, a tool’s effectiveness relies on the artist. Experiment with each technique. Try shooting the same scene several different ways. Find a scene with a shocking revelation or dialogue, and use various versions of the zoom and the punch in. Does the crash zoom add weight to it or make it feel kind of hokey? Is the slow zoom too dramatic? Does the punch in ruin the pacing of the overall scene or shake it up in a necessary way? A dangerous approach can be having the technique you want in mind before even writing the scene. Experiment and see which technique fits the scene best, instead of trying to shoehorn the scene into the effect.Cover image via The Shining (Warner Bros)Looking for more cinematography tips and tricks? Check out these articles.Viltrox vs. Metabones: Speed Booster for the Blackmagic Pocket Cinema CameraChoosing Aspect Ratio: A Guide to Everything You Need to Know3 Cheap, Underappreciated Cameras Filmmakers Should ConsiderCapturing the Cinematic Moment: Creative Uses for a Color MeterWhere to Find Vintage Lenses (and Tips on How to Use Them)
Goa Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar will soon address a press conference to clear the air over the ongoing mining impasse, the Deputy Speaker of Assembly Michael Lobo said on Monday. “He is the right person because he is the Minister of Mines as well,” Mr. Lobo said,adding, “in the next two to three days he will address a press conference and tell whether it (mining) is going to happen or not.” Mr. Parrikar, who has advanced pancreatic cancer, has not made an official public appearance for more than two months. He has also not moved out of his private residence except for a brief visit to the Goa Medical College Hospital since October 14, his return from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Reports from New Delhi indicate that the Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, which mandates auctioning as the only route for allotment of iron ore mining leases, cannot be amended — as requested by the Goa government — to facilitate renewal of leases to existing holders. This has made the agitating mining dependents restless. Top Goa BJP leaders as well as some central leaders of the party have repeatedly assured the agitating mining dependent lobby in Goa, as also the mine owners, that the Central government would be amending the MMRD Act in the coming winter session of Parliament. Mr. Lobo who has been active on this front, also said it was necessary for Mr. Parrikar to communicate to the people of Goa about when and how he planned to resume mining.The Congress has beenattacking the government and accusing Mr. Parrikar as well as the BJP of trying to hide the fact that the Union Government had already rejected Mr. Parrikar’s request for amendment of MMRD Act. Mining in Goa was banned in February this year by the Supreme Court quashing second renewals of 88 mining leases, while also directing the State government to allot the leases afresh as per appropriate laws.