Southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina provide a unique opportunity for examination of parental investment because postpartum pup growth is fueled exclusively by energy from stored reserves in fasting mothers, and the seals are extremely sexually dimorphic as adults. We examined the influence of pup sex, maternal size, and other factors on the variation in postpartum maternal mass change and pup growth. Elephant seals (178 mothers and 445 pups) were weighed during four breeding periods at South Georgia Island. Maternal mass change during lactation increased markedly with the mass of the mother at parturition. Postpartum maternal mass accounted for 75% of the variation in mass loss and 62% of the variation of pup mass at weaning. Size of the pup at birth explained <4% of this variation, and the sex of the pup explained virtually none (<0.1%). The duration of lactation was positively correlated with the pstpartumo mass of mothers, but negatively correlated with the rate of maternal mass loss when corrected for the effect of maternal postpartum mass. Mothers giving birth late in the season had shorter lactation periods than those that gave birth early but seemed to compensate for this by increasing the rate of mass transfer. Average transfer efficiency (pup mass gain/maternal mass loss) was 46±0.5%. Mothers lost, on average, 35% of their postpartum mass during lactation and 40% during the whole breeding period. Females whose postpartum mass increased between seasons increased their expenditure on their pups; females whose postpartum mass decreased, decreased their expenditure. These data from mothers with single pups do not clarify whether differences in investment were controlled by mothers or their offspring. However on three occasions, study females raised two pups in a season. Despite the increased demand, these females did not increase their expenditure, suggesting that levels of investment are maternally controlled. These results show that levels of expenditure in southern elephant seals appear to be determined largely by a single variable: female mass at parturition.
Division: Obstetrics & Gynecology (80001012)Department: Obstetrics & Gynecology (90002102)Employment Duration: Full-timeBaylor College of Medicine and Department Summary:Baylor ( www.bcm.edu ) isrecognized as one of the nation’s premier academic health sciencecenters and is known for excellence in education, research, andhealthcare and community service. Located in the heart of theworld’s largest medical center ( Texas MedicalCenter ), Baylor is affiliated with multiple educational,healthcare and research affiliates ( Baylor Affiliates).Job Responsibilities:Location: TCH Pavilion for Women – Family FertilityCenterClinical responsibilities will be assigned by your Chair andDivision Director, and may be altered in response to changingDepartmental and Division needs. Specific responsibilities arenegotiable and dependent upon Candidate interest andexpertise.Candidate will be expected to work primarily at the Pavilion forWomen at Texas Children’s Hospital. There will also be anexpectation to participate in research and educational activitiesin the department. All faculty are expected to participate in theeducation mission of the College. Candidate must agree to dischargetheir duties and responsibilities faithfully, to abide by allrules, regulations, and policies and to devote to the performanceof your duties and responsibilities the amount of time and effortfor which you are employed by the College. Candidate will beallowed to spend up to one-fifth of your effort on activitiesoutside BCM (consulting, scientific board service, etc.), butoutside time commitments beyond this require prior approval of theChair and Division Director.Job Qualifications:Must have an MD Degree and be board certified or eligible inReproductive Endocrinology and Infertility.Candidate must have, or be eligible for a valid Texas Medical BoardLicense.Baylor College of Medicine is an Equal Opportunity/AffirmativeAction/Equal Access Employer.838CA; CH
Kingsmill has announced it has officially been certified by the Halal Food Authority as halal-compliant.The majority of the brand’s products are suitable for vegetarians – with the exception of Kingsmill 50/50 with Omega 3, which contains fish-derived Omega 3 – and while they have always been suitable for a halal diet, the firm said it sought recognition to tie in with its packaging relaunch, announced last month.This accreditation certifies that those Kingsmill bread and bakery goods with the Halal Food Authority logo are allowed under Islamic dietary guidelines, said the firm.Guy Shepherd, category director at Allied Bakeries, said: “This demonstrates our dedication to catering to differing consumer needs. The accreditation means that it’s easy and simple for retailers and consumers to be confident that these products are suitable for a halal diet.”There are a number of ingredients that may be found in bakery that are not halal. According to the Islamic Services of America, L-Cysteine is an amino acid used as a dough conditioner and is often sourced from duck feathers or human hair, although there are synthetic versions available. Shortenings, such as lard, may also be made from animal sources.