Southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina provide a unique opportunity for examination of parental investment because postpartum pup growth is fueled exclusively by energy from stored reserves in fasting mothers, and the seals are extremely sexually dimorphic as adults. We examined the influence of pup sex, maternal size, and other factors on the variation in postpartum maternal mass change and pup growth. Elephant seals (178 mothers and 445 pups) were weighed during four breeding periods at South Georgia Island. Maternal mass change during lactation increased markedly with the mass of the mother at parturition. Postpartum maternal mass accounted for 75% of the variation in mass loss and 62% of the variation of pup mass at weaning. Size of the pup at birth explained <4% of this variation, and the sex of the pup explained virtually none (<0.1%). The duration of lactation was positively correlated with the pstpartumo mass of mothers, but negatively correlated with the rate of maternal mass loss when corrected for the effect of maternal postpartum mass. Mothers giving birth late in the season had shorter lactation periods than those that gave birth early but seemed to compensate for this by increasing the rate of mass transfer. Average transfer efficiency (pup mass gain/maternal mass loss) was 46±0.5%. Mothers lost, on average, 35% of their postpartum mass during lactation and 40% during the whole breeding period. Females whose postpartum mass increased between seasons increased their expenditure on their pups; females whose postpartum mass decreased, decreased their expenditure. These data from mothers with single pups do not clarify whether differences in investment were controlled by mothers or their offspring. However on three occasions, study females raised two pups in a season. Despite the increased demand, these females did not increase their expenditure, suggesting that levels of investment are maternally controlled. These results show that levels of expenditure in southern elephant seals appear to be determined largely by a single variable: female mass at parturition.
800response, the Burlington, Vermont headquartered provider of vanity 800 numbers and web-based call tracking, announced today that the company is donating seven thousand dollars to charitable organizations throughout the state in support of the local communities and families affected by Hurricane Irene.Following the storm, the volunteer committee at 800response began circulating weekly updates on community-organized volunteer activities that were taking place within the local community. ‘Thankfully, we did not have any employees severely affected by the storm. As a group, we were able to lend our time, support and funds to various organized events throughout the area that were helping these communities clean up and rebuild in the wake of the storm,’ says Laura Noonan, vice president of marketing and corporate communications. Employees of 800response participated in numerous volunteer initiatives, donating clothes, food, funds and manpower during the most dire time, immediately following the storm.With the colder weather approaching, and recognizing that many families are still trying to recover, the company announced an initiative in November to their group of 40 employees: 800response would match employee donations two dollars for every one dollar pledged. In all, the company raised $7,000 through this effort.‘The holidays are a hard time for many, and this year will be especially difficult for those families who have lost their homes or suffered extreme damage from Hurricane Irene. We are a fortunate group to not have been directly affected, and we’re taking that good fortune and doing what we can to share it with others,’ says Noonan.The funds raised by 800response and the company’s employees will be donated to multiple organizations, including Revitalizing Waterbury, Vermont & The New Hampshire Valley Red Cross, Vermont Foodbank, Spring Hill Horse Rescue, Waterbury Area Food Shelf, Duxbury Elf’s Shelf, and the Vermont Disaster Relief Fund c/o the United Way of Vermont.For more than 20 years,800response has maintained the widest selection of true vanity 800 numbers available today, operating out of their headquarters in downtown Burlington, VT. The company offers these dynamic advertising tools to businesses throughout North America to help them drive increases in advertising response rates, improve ROI, and track cost-per-lead. 800response services include a sophisticated Call Routing platform, Real-time Call Tracking reports, and Call Monitoring services like Call Recording, CallFinder Speech-Detection, and Missed Call Monitor.BURLINGTON, VT ‘ December 29, 2011
Caribbean-born actress Parisa Fitz-Henley thrilled TV audiences in the role of American actress Meghan Markle as the Lifetime movie, “Harry & Meghan: A Royal Romance,” premiered on Sunday May 13, ahead of the Royal Wedding this Saturday.The Kingston-born Fitz-Henley, 41, lit up the screen as she joined Murray Fraser in chronicling the courtship and love story between Prince Harry and his fiancée.Performance seemed like the real Meghan Feedback from those who watched the TV show was that Fitz-Henley’s performance was so good many assumed it was Markle herself on the screen.The film documents from the moment the couple met after being set up on a blind date by friends, through their initial courtship when they were able to keep their romance under wraps, and ultimately the intense global media attention surrounding their relationship and Meghan’s life as a divorced bi-racial American actress.“Harry & Meghan: A Royal Romance” was executive produced by Merideth Finn and Michele Weiss and written by Scarlett Lacey and Terrence Coli. The wedding of the real-life Prince and Markle will occur Saturday at St George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle. The ceremony itself begins at noon UK time or 8 AM ET. ABC News will begin with a special edition of Good Morning America from 5-10 AM ET May 19. GMA co-anchor Robin Roberts and World News Tonight’s David Muir will lead the live coverage from Windsor. Dad cannot attend wedding Markle’s dad, Thomas Markle, told TMZ that he will not attend the royal wedding and walk his daughter down the aisle following the controversy about his staged paparazzi photos. He also told the site that he suffered a heart attack six days ago but checked himself out of the hospital to attend the nuptials. However, “he’s now decided not to go because he doesn’t want to embarrass the Royal Family or his daughter.”Presiding Episcopal Bishop Michal Curry will join The Dean of Windsor, The Rt. Revd. David Conner, who will conduct the Service. The Most Revd. and Rt. Hon. Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, will officiate as the couple make their marriage vows.